The industrial revolution (IR) 4.0, sometimes referred to as artificial intelligence (AI), will alter not just how we carry out our daily activities and interact with others, but also how we perceive ourselves. This article will first define AI and then explain how it will affect changes in the industrial, social, and economic landscape for humanity in the twenty-first century. The IR1.0, or the IR of the 18th century, significantly altered society without directly affecting interpersonal interactions. However, contemporary AI has a significant impact on our daily activities as well as how we interact with one another. To meet this problem, new AI bioethics principles must be taken into account and developed in order to provide guidelines for the AI technology to follow and ensure that the development of this new intelligence benefits the entire world.
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ?
There are many various ways to define artificial intelligence (AI); for some, it is the technology that was developed to enable computers and other devices to work intelligently. Some believe it to be a machine that takes the place of workers to provide a faster and more efficient outcome for men. Others view it as “a system” capable of accurately interpreting external data, learning from such data, and using those learnings to accomplish particular objectives and tasks through adaptable change .
Despite the diversity of definitions, it is generally accepted that artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology used by machines and computers to support humankind’s problem-solving and operational needs. In a nutshell, it is artificial intelligence that has been created by humans and shown by machines.These features of human-made tools that mimic the “cognitive” skills of the inborn intelligence of human minds are referred to as “artificial intelligence” (AI).
AI has almost completely permeated every aspect of our lives as a result of the rapid advancement of cybernetic technology in recent years. Some of this AI may no longer be considered AI because it has become so ingrained in our daily lives and we are accustomed to it, like optical character recognition or the Siri (speech interpretation and recognition interface) information-searching tool on computers.
Various forms of Artificial Intelligence
We can differentiate between two sorts of AI based on the capabilities and features it offers. First up is weak AI, sometimes referred to as narrow AI, which is created to do out certain tasks like self-driving cars, facial recognition, or Internet Siri searches. Numerous systems currently in use that advertise that they use “AI” are probably only weak AIs focused on a single, well-defined task. Even while weak AI appears to benefit human life, other people believe it could be dangerous since it could interfere with the electric grid or harm nuclear power plants if it malfunctions.
The long-term objective of many researchers is to develop strong artificial intelligence (AI), also known as artificial general intelligence (AGI), which is the speculative intelligence of a machine with the capacity to understand or learn any intelligent task that a human being can, thereby assisting human beings to solve the problem at hand. Even if humans may still outperform narrow AI in tasks like playing chess or solving equations, the impact is currently minimal. However, AGI could perform practically every cognitive task better than humans.
Strong AI is an alternative interpretation of AI that may be taught to mimic human intelligence, to be intelligent in whatever task is given to it, and to even possess perception, beliefs, and other cognitive abilities that are typically solely attributed to humans.
Distinct AI functions
2. MACHINE LEARNING AND VISION
3. NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
5. SELF-DRIVING CARS
Do people actually require Artificial Intelligence ?
Is the human society really in need of AI ? It varies. Yes, it is if someone picks a quicker and more effective way to do their work and works continuously without taking a break. However, it is not if humanity is content to live a natural lifestyle without having overbearing ambitions to subvert the natural order. According to history, people are constantly seeking methods that are quicker, simpler, more efficient, and convenient to complete the tasks they are working on. As a result, the need for continued progress drives people to seek out new and improved methods of accomplishing things.As homo-sapiens, humanity learned that using tools could ease many difficulties associated with daily life and that with the tools they created, humans could execute tasks more efficiently. The catalyst for human progress is inventiveness, the making of new things. Today’s easier and more relaxed way of life is entirely due to the contribution of technology. Since the dawn of civilization, the tools have been a part of human culture, and they are essential to advancement.
Above all, we observe the high-profile applications of AI, such as self-driving cars and drones, medical diagnosis, art creation, game playing (such as Go or Chess), search engines (such as Google search), online assistants (such as Siri), image recognition in photos, spam filtering, forecasting flight delays, etc. All of them have made life so much more simple and easy for people that we have grown accustomed to them and take them for granted. Even if it is not strictly necessary, AI has become indispensable because without it, our world would be in disarray in many ways.
Artificial intelligence’s effects on Human Society
- There will be a significant societal shift that will drastically alter how we live in the human community. Humanity must work hard to survive, but thanks to artificial intelligence, we can simply teach a computer to perform a task for us without even picking up a tool. The necessity for face-to-face interaction for the exchange of ideas will be replaced by AI, which will gradually reduce the closeness of human relationships. AI will act as a barrier between individuals as personal interactions will become unnecessary for communication.
- The next is unemployment because a lot of jobs will be automated. The use of machines and robots on many modern auto assembly lines has resulted in the displacement of many conventional workers. Even at grocery stores, store employees will no longer be required since digital devices may replace human work.
- As AI investors will receive the lion’s share of profits, wealth disparity will be generated. The wealth disparity between the rich and the poor will increase. It will be easier to see the alleged “M” shape of wealth distribution.
- AI may be developed by human creators with racial biases or selfish goals in mind, harming particular individuals or objects. For instance, the United Nations has decided to restrict the development of nuclear power out of concern that it could be used indiscriminately to eliminate humanity or to target particular races or regions in order to establish dominance. It is theoretically feasible for AI to target a certain race or some programmed objects in order to carry out the programmers’ instructions to destroy them, resulting in global catastrophe.
- The diagnosis produced by IBM’s Watson machine is remarkable. The computer’s diagnosis will be made promptly after the data has been loaded. AI can offer doctors a variety of therapeutic options to take into account. To feed the digital findings of the physical examination into the computer, which will take into account all scenarios, automatically determine whether the patient has any inadequacies or illnesses, and even recommend various forms of treatment options.
- Seniors are advised to get pets to relieve stress, lower blood pressure, deal with loneliness, and boost social engagement. Now, cyborgs have been proposed as companions for those elderly people who are alone, even as helpers for some household duties. Seniors and physically disabled people’s quality of life is improved by therapeutic robots and socially helpful robot technologies.
- Human error in the workplace is unavoidable and frequently expensive; the more fatigued workers are, the higher their chance of making mistakes is. But there is no tiredness or emotional diversion with all technologies. Errors are avoided, and the task can be completed more quickly and precisely.
- Surgical techniques powered by AI are now available for consumers to select. Even though this AI still need medical personnel to run it, it can finish the job with minimal harm to the body. Most hospitals now have access to the da Vinci surgical system, a robotic device that enables surgeons to undertake minimally invasive surgeries. When compared to manual processes, these systems are much more precise and accurate. The less intrusive the procedure, the less trauma, blood loss, and worry the patients will experience.
- In 1971, the first computed tomography scanners were released. In 1977, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the human body was performed for the first time. Heart MRI, body MRI, and prenatal imaging had all become commonplace by the early 2000s. New algorithms are still being sought for to assess scan results and detect particular disorders . All of those are contributions made by AI technology.
Some cautions to be Reminded
Human expertise are still required to develop, implement, and operate the AI in order to prevent any unanticipated errors from arising, despite all the great potential that it holds. In a free newsletter she published, San Francisco-based technology analyst Beth Kindig noted that while AI holds out the possibility of improving medical diagnosis, human experts are still required to prevent the misclassification of unidentified diseases because AI is not omnipotent and cannot solve all of humanity’s problems. When AI encounters a dead end, it may simply move forward indiscriminately to complete its task, which will only lead to further issues. Thus, it is imperative to keep a close eye on how AI works.Physician-in-the-loop is the term for this reminder .
In order to warn against bias and potential societal harm, Elizabeth Gibney raised the issue of an ethical AI in her essay that was published in Nature . The 2020 Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) conference in Vancouver, Canada, raised ethical questions about the use of AI technology in areas like facial recognition and predictive policing, which can harm vulnerable populations owing to biassed algorithms . For instance, the NeurIPS can be designed to identify members of a particular race as likely criminal suspects or troublemakers.
Artificial Intelligence’s threat to Bioethics
The interaction between living things is the main topic of the subject of bioethics. Bioethics emphasises right and wrong in biospheres and can be divided into at least three categories: bioethics in social settings, which is the relationship between people, and bioethics in environmental settings, which is the relationship between people and nature, including animal ethics, land ethics, ecological ethics, etc. All of these are interested in the connections between and within natural existences.
Humans are faced with a new dilemma as AI develops: how to relate to something that is not inherently natural. Bioethics often explores the interaction between human beings and their environment, both of which are natural occurrences. However, men now have to contend with AI, a human-made, artificial, and unnatural object. Humans have made a lot of things, but they have never had to consider how to relate to their own creations ethically. AI doesn’t have any emotions or personality on its own. AI engineers now understand how critical it is to provide AI the capacity for discrimination so that it can avoid engaging in behaviours that could damage humans unintentionally. From this vantage point, we recognise that AI has the potential to negatively affect people and society. As a result, bioethics of AI becomes crucial to ensure that AI does not develop on its own by diverging from its intended use.
Early in 2014, Stephen Hawking issued a dire warning that the emergence of fully conscious AI might mean the extinction of humanity. He claimed that after humans perfect AI, it might go out on its own and constantly reinvent itself . Since biological evolution is sluggish, humans would not be able to compete and would be surpassed. Nick Bostrom makes the case that AI will endanger humanity in his book Superintelligence. He contends that if AI becomes sufficiently sophisticated, it may engage in convergent behaviour such as resource acquisition or self-preservation, which could be harmful to humanity.
Because AI is a constant in our environment, we must fight to uphold the AI bioethics of beneficence, maintaining values, clarity, and responsibility.Since AI already lacks a soul, its bioethics must be transcendental to make up for this deficiency and overcome its lack of empathy. AI exists in the world now. We should remember what AI pioneer Joseph Weizenbaum said, that we shouldn’t allow computers make key decisions for people because AI as a machine will never have compassion or the ability to assess or understand morality . Bioethics is a process of conscientization rather than a matter of calculation.AI is still a computer and a tool, despite the fact that its creators can upload all the information, data, and programming necessary for it to behave like a human being. Without genuine human emotions and the ability to empathise, AI will always stay AI. AI technology must therefore be developed with great prudence. In his White Paper on AI: A European Approach to Excellence and Trust, Von der Leyen stated that because AI must serve people, it must always uphold their rights. AI at high risk. Before it enters our single market, anything that might infringe on people’s rights must be examined and approved.
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